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Tuesday, January 28, 2014

What is Firmware?


In 1967, Ascher Opler invented the term "firmware". Its original meaning referred to the contents of a writable control store which contained a microcode in the computers instruction set. In other words, it was a type of specialized high speed memory with microcode that could be modified with special instructions for the CPU to execute. Firmware was originally differentiated from hardware, which was the CPU itself, and software, which were essentially instructions that executed on the CPU. In contrast, firmware was lower-level microcode that was used to implement machine instructions. One could describe firmware as the boundary between hardware and software. In later decades, the meaning of the term firmware was extended to anything that was ROM-resident, or read-only memory. ROM is a storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Firmware could now refer to any of the following:

  •   Processor machine-instructions for BIOS

  • Bootstrap loaders

  • Specialized applications
In the past, updating firmware usually involves replacing the storage medium that contains the firmware, which was almost always a socketed ROM. Flash memory allows firmware to be updated without physically removing an integrated circuit from the system. Any errors made during the upgrade system ran the risk of making the device non-functional. Up until the invention of integrated circuits, firmware products used discrete semiconductor diode matrices. Technology has improved from the initial firmware products, but the basic functionality still remains the same. Firmware is still held in non-volatile memory devices such as ROM, EPROM, or flash memory. Firmware is rarely ever changed. In fact, many firmware memory devices are permanently installed and manufactured to not allow any changes to be made. It can, however, be updated if for example, bugs need to be fixed or features need to be added to the device. This usually requires changing ROM integrated circuits and reprogramming it altogether.
Firmware - A Must Component in Many Devices:
Nowadays, you will find many examples of devices containing firmware:
  • Traffic lights

  • Consumer appliances

  • Digital watches

  • Computers

  • Computer peripherals

  • Mobile phones

  • Digital cameras

  • Automobiles

  • Portable music players
Choose the New Firmware Parts from Leading Manufacturers:
If you require new firmware parts, it can be found at any of the following manufacturers:
  • 3Com

  • Adtran

  • Alcatel Lucent

  • Apple

  • Avaya

  • Axiom Memory Solutions

  • Cisco Memory

  • Compaq

  • DELL

  • Diamond Multimedia

  • Digital Equipment Corporation

  • EMC Corporation

  • Enterasys

  • Epson

  • Fargo HID Global

  • Fortinet

  • HITACHI Electronics

  • HP

  • IBM

  • Intermec

  • International Rectifier

  • Juniper Networks

  • Lenovo

  • Lexmark

  • Netapp
    Nortel Networks

  • OKI Electric Industry

  • Output Technology

  • Printek

  • Printronix

  • QMS Memory

  • Quantum

  • Sony Electronics

  • Standard Register

  • SUN Memory

  • Tally Genicom

  • Texas Instruments

  • Transcend

  • Unisys

  • Western Digital
In this modern day and age, firmware components are considered to be just as important as the operating system of a computer itself. In addition, firmware can be found in various other consumer products as well. For example, the timing and control systems of washing machines use firmware as well as the controlling sound and video attributes and the channel list in modern TVs. As of 2010, most portable music players support firmware upgrades.
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Monday, January 20, 2014

Effectual Online Service

Nowadays many users prefer online shopping and they also want get benefit. There is little possibility of these things. There an extremely advantageous service is available for people and this perfect for people. Nowadays several people are watching for sell their old things and they want money for their old things after selling. Many people need this facility and they can get benefit as same facility from our online shop. On our online store we provide flip4new Gutscheins service and other extra opportunity for our users. This is effectual approach for every people
and reliable way to convert your old thing into money.


There few are shops are providing service like this, but they didn't provide any offer. There are also many online facilities are available on our online store. Every user can use it to buy and sell old things. flip4new Gutschein is best service of our shop and effective for every users. Using this facility they can get many things like electronic items, technical products and many things for use. Today every online store is not providing facility like it. Which user wants to sell their old and unused thing then they can help of our service. They can sell their things online very easily.
Online service is an effective service and it is easily avail on internet. Basically in online shopping having lots of benefits for users and they can get benefit from our site. Internet makes everything easy for users. They can select their choice simply and find other usable things. Flip4new Gutschein is also a best and attractive service for our users and they can find profit by using it. Usually people can sell here their old items like DVD players, CD players, television and other electronic things.
This is also better approach because user may also purchase many things from this shop. On our online store all things and products are available. Basically in our products electronic items, T.V., computer, laptop, mobile and many things are available. With suing flip4new Gutschein service user can find offer and discount on these products. This is best and efficient coupon service and it is available for every user. People can search here any product with using our service and on our online store another extra opportunity for people. Now any user can also know about products quality and its price before purchase. This is best approach and facility for users and this service effective for each user.
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Backup Data On Your Laptop

 If you were to look at past statistics regarding the information that has been lost in regards to laptop computers, you would find yourself amazed.  Even though this information can be astounding, many of us still don’t take the time to back up the information on our laptops.


To put it in simple terms, nothing in the computer industry is fool proof.  Hard drives can crash, the laptop can get stolen, or it can even be dropped and rendered useless.  To ensure that we are never left without our precious data, we should always create a backup of our information.

There is no mistaken the fact that over a million laptops have been stolen over the years in the United States alone.  Anytime a laptop is stolen, chances are that it won’t be recovered.  If the information wasn’t backed up, then the owner will be left with no laptop - but more importantly - no backed up data either.

Just like you can with desktop computers, you can also create a backup of the data on your laptop as well.  You can use online services, back it up remotely, or use several other methods to ensure that you keep all of your data.  Preserving your data is something you should really look into, especially if you have business material on your laptop.

The best way to go about backing up your data and files is to burn them to a data CD.  Data CDs can hold up to 700 MB (Mega Bytes) of data, which means a lot of files.  To back things up this way, all you need is a CD/RW burner in your laptop, which most of the newer ones come with.

The only drawback to laptops is the fact that they don’t offer near as much storage or security measures as a desktop PC.  Desktop computers have a lot more power, and they can also do things (including backups) in a fraction of the time.

The laptop computer was designed for on the go use, which is the main reason why people don’t really think about backing up their data.  When the thought finally does come to mind, it is normally too late to do anything about it.

As mentioned above, the easiest and quickest way to backup your laptop data is to use an online backup service.  Depending on your connection to the Internet, it can take anywhere from several minutes to several hours.  Although it may take you a little bit of time, you’ll have the satisfaction in knowing that your data is there if something should happen.

Whether it’s for your business or personal use, you can’t go wrong backing up your data.  You should always create a backup of your data at least once a month, even more than that if you have a lot of important information that you add to your laptop on a frequent basis.

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Sunday, January 19, 2014

what is open source ?

Open Source Software

If you've spent any lengthy amount of time on the Internet, you've probably heard of open source software but might not have fully understood what it is and why it even exists.  This article will describe this recent phenomenon and describe some of its benefits for the software using community.

In a nutshell, open source software is software made by everyone - for everyone. The hopes behind its development is that through its open access, it will evolve into something that represents the true desires of computer users. Through a wide network of user involvement, the software in question is enhanced and debugged without costs or administrative politics.

Traditionally, software is developed behind closed doors. A team of professional coders build it but the community at large isn't part of its conception. It's costly to produce and as you can probably guess, that cost is passed on to the end user: the consumer. Open source software on the other hand is free. Free to download, free to install, free to use, free to modify, and free to share.

Started over twenty years ago, it's a phenomenon that is gaining in both popularity and exposure. In its first conception, open source gave birth to the World Wide Web as we know it today. The Internet as a whole is the result of free permission to access the web, use the web, contribute to the web, and share the web with others. But it certainly hasn't stopped there. In the not too distant past, Netscape converted its once commercial version of its Navigator web browser to open source. And today, open source is venturing into the commercial realm as well.

At first thought, the idea of open source may sound just plain crazy to those who earn a living from software development. But the facts point to a different prediction. Open source software puts companies in a terrific position to re-brand and re-position themselves in a market that they may have not been able to reach before. In the business world, open source is all about image and when consumers witness corporations contributing (instead of selling) to the buying public, they gain big favor in the eyes of their users (plus tremendous opportunities to sell other items).

Inviting the public inside a product's development builds community and trust. It also sets the platform for increased reliability. Fans of open source programs are adamant about reliable software and highly criticize commercialized versions for being buggy and error-prone. Avid fans even proclaim commercialism is the cause of shoddy software.

Another benefit that open source brings to light is the speed at which its products are developed, enhanced, supported and distributed. This is because the people who regularly contribute to an open source product do so for unmotivated reasons (other than perhaps to feed the ego.) They're highly talented, they're available, and they care. Bringing money into any project can almost mean instant death. It can kill motivation, desire, and a true willingness to create a good product. In a commercial setting, participants work for a paycheck rather than for the product. And this is what puts open source projects far ahead of its monetized competition.

As a software user, this means you can contribute to an open source project as well, and help to develop it into a product that reflects your direct preferences. You aren't "stuck" using open source software the way you would be stuck using an expensive word processor or database. You have the same access to open source software as its programmers have and in essence, you are your own customer!

Perhaps at this point you're wondering where you can get in on this wonderful opportunity. There are plenty of open source opportunities sprinkled across the Internet and they can be easily found though any search engine. Google "open source project" and you'll be sure to find more resources than you can shake a stick at!

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computer virus


What They Are And One Reason Why People Make Them

Over recent years, computers have become synonymous with viruses and viruses don't show any signs of disappearing any time soon. In recent news, LiveScience.com reported that "Before the month is even done, April has set a record for virus e-mails."1 In the past, we would be comfortable in telling new computer users not to worry about viruses and that catching a computer virus is rare. Today, that would be some of the worst advice we could give anyone. As reported in countless news reports, computer viruses are rampant and they're extremely worrisome. This article will describe what viruses are and then point you in the direction of some rather unique protection and prevention.

In short, a computer virus is a software program designed to destroy or steal data. It attacks computers via distribution - often unknowingly - through email attachments, software downloads, and even some types of advanced web scripting. Viruses that destroy data are known as Trojan horses, viruses that explode their attacks are called bombs, and viruses that duplicate themselves are called worms. Some viruses are a combination of each, however they can be further identified according to where they're located on a computer.

A virus originating from the boot sector of a computer is a boot-sector virus and this nasty devil does its dirty work the moment a computer is turned on. A virus that attaches itself to (infects) other programs is a file virus and activates the moment that an infected program starts. File viruses may also be referred to as parasitic viruses, however should a virus work from both the boot-sector and from an infected program, the virus is then known as a multipartite virus.

Why viruses exist remains a mystery, however we had privy access to the mind behind a virus programmer who explained his motivation behind his destructive inclinations. Apparently, this person had a deep grudge against a popular online service which shall remain unnamed. In this hacker's mind, the online service failed to do a quality job in protecting children from online smut and as retaliation, he created and distributed a virus to as many file libraries of this service as he could. His intentions were to disable the computers of the online service's users so much that they wouldn't be able to connect for days. In his mind, the loss of connection meant loss of revenue for the online service.

Although the malicious code that this person generated may have worked for a small percentage of users, sufficed to say, the online service continued on and still exists today. Despite his motivation or intention, his efforts were null.

We wouldn't be surprised to learn if other motivations behind spreading viruses were similar to this person's, but that doesn't justify the damage that viruses do. Innocent people become pawns for the evil plans of others who've convinced themselves they're doing the "right" thing.

To protect a computer from getting a virus, or clean a virus from a computer system once infected requires the use of an antivirus utility. But may be something else we can do. Perhaps we could make an effort to educate the people who want put viruses into the public about ways to display dissatisfaction with a service or product that don't involve harming innocent parties. In doing so, we just might reduce the number of virus news stories and protect our own investments at the same time.
blakewest via photopin cc

Saturday, December 14, 2013

cloud-internet

A cloud-hosted site is operating on a lot more than a single linked servers in contrast to that of a traditional hosted a person that runs on a solitary server. Just about, you will find the processing energy to be unrestricted and therefore you can supplement it with new servers and scale up.

Cloud hosting companies advantages the customers in many techniques. The most widespread strengths are its price performance and its scalability. The know-how applied here are very sophisticated and scalable that will allow in hardware upgrades, load balancing and so on. For that reason, you have website expansion done with minimum restrictions. Just picture of the boueux that might encounter though shifting a site from shared to a committed server. There could be a server crash as your internet site encounters a sudden alteration. With modern cloud hosting solutions, you can stay away from all these higher than-talked about hassles.
Price is however one more factor to contemplate if you necessitate a large amount of processing electric power. Cloud computing companies cost the purchasers based on the volume of computing electric power that has been used. As a result, it is akin to your regular monthly electrical power bill. End users have the option of pay-for each-use. By natural means, you would no extended need massive server powers in purchase to evade from a sudden site visitors surge.Provider companies of cloud internet hosting expert services have come with healthful cloud ecosystem that helps in boosting up your enterprise and business. The cloud infrastructure expert services helps in raising your management on the IT infrastructure and result in charge saving. This would more profit you by helping you expand your organization, reach fresh territories, and not fret about the physical infrastructure expenses. In the modern earlier new age cloud internet hosting alternatives allow you to profit greatly from cloud computing. We have detailed down some of the benefits under:-
* If gives a simple position command that is delivered throughout the internet and enables you to organize and harmonize several layers of composite infrastructure
* Any variety of assist can be expected shortly and is just a simply call away. There is human technical assistance presented in actual-time that will let you to clear up billing queries, technical issues and other worries relevant to troubleshoot that you might arrive across.
* The software also offers a strong computing horsepower. The technologies utilized are all high-stop so that every consumer in the marketplace can be catered to.
Enterprise cloud on the other hand aids you to carry on functions on a standard foundation when you would require a greater authority on your IT infrastructure program. It aids in maximizing the scalability and with no forsaking security.
Therefore, when it is about IT server effectiveness and scalability, cloud-internet hosting solutions perform the finest.

Jay Williams

The Different Types of Cloud

Platforms: Clouds deliver instruments and programs for use via a safe server.

SaaS (Computer software as a Support): Supply application and data usage as a result of the medium of web-based e-mail handle or database processing.

All sorts of cloud solutions have develop into important staples on the computing and IT preservation landscape because of to its easy usage and regulate and flexibility, specifically for new corporations and all those searching to scale back again on particular prices in an more and more highly-priced business enterprise planet.

Bespoke cloud services obtainable remove the specifications and demands on enterprises that were when greatly reliant on their solitary inner infrastructure. Maintaining connectivity and information by a cloud delivers a stage of independence for companies never ever found in advance of.

Cloud Styles

A cloud is a visible group of particles of h2o droplets and/or ice crystals, in the air. Clouds type when drinking water vapor condensates. Condensation nuclei, as in smoke or dust particles, sort a surface area which drinking water vapor can condense on.

Cumulus
Just one of the basic cloud sorts it is a lower cloud forms. Cumulus is a cloud that develops in a vertical course from the base up. Cumulus clouds have flat bases and dome like higher surfaces. The base of the cloud is generally no much more than 3,000 ft above the ground, but the leading typically differs in top. Modest, separate cumulus clouds are linked with fair climatic conditions. The top rated of these kinds of a cloud can easily get to twenty,000 or extra into the troposphere. Underneath specified atmospheric problems, these clouds can create into bigger clouds, regarded as towering cumulus, and may perhaps create a rain shower.

Cirrostratus 
A cirri kind cloud that develops from cirrus spreading out into a thin layer, producing a flat sheet like appearance. It can give the sky a a bit milky or veiled look. When seen from the floor of the earth, these ice crystals can generate a halo influence all around the sun or moon. This cloud is a good precursor of precipitation, indicating it may well come about within 12 to 24 hours.

Cirrus 
Cirrus clouds are skinny and wispy composed of ice crystals and normally appear as veil patches or strands. In the mid-latitudes, cloud bases are usually discovered involving twenty,000 to 30,000 feet, and it is the best cloud that sorts in the sky, besides for the tops, or anvils, of cumulonimbus, which sometimes develop to abnormal heights.

Cumuliform 
Clouds composed of drinking water droplets that exhibit vertical progress. The density of the droplets generally blocks sunlight, casting shadows on the earth's floor. With escalating vertical top, they are generally associated with convection. Bases of these clouds are normally no far more than three,000 ft earlier mentioned the floor, but they can develop previous the troposphere in each temperate and tropical latitudes. They are classified as small clouds and involve all varieties of cumulus and cumulonimbus. The reverse in variety are the horizontal enhancement of stratiform clouds.

Cumulonimbus
Cumulonimbus is the exact same style of cloud as cumulus cloud having said that it develops vertically. Typically named a thunderstorm cloud, it regularly brings major showers, lightning, thunder, hail, gusty winds and even occasionally tornadoes.

Raymond English
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Wednesday, December 11, 2013

search engine optimization


SEO is abbreviated as search engine optimization. It is marketing strategy used to promote your business online. Contracting with SEO services Lancashire is as important as launching the business online through effective website design. SEO services play a crucial role even in web design Lancashire. Whether your need is to launch a new website or market the existing business online SEO services is mandatory. The current article tells what SEO Service Company will do for you in promoting your business online.
 

The role of SEO enter into the picture right after developing the landing page of the website. SEO company coordinate with the development team and give them a right set of keywords while developing the coding part. Using right keywords in the website coding will help the search engines to index your webpage easily for the targeted keywords. 
Increase your page ranking
No customer is patient enough to browse the search engine over number of pages to reach your website. You can gain the attention of the targeted browsers only when your website is listed on the top of the search results. To make your website listed on the top of the search results among major search engines, services Chorley are very important. They strive to increase the page ranking of your website through off page optimization. The services they offer will bring quality back links to your website and increase your page ranking. Few of strategies fallowed by them are article submission, link building, classifieds and press release submission 
Increase traffic 
These Lancaster search engine optimization services bring quality traffic to your website through on page optimization. Your website is listed on the top of the search results as sponsored links to gain the attention of the targeted visitor at first. You have pay money to the search engine for each click made by the visitor. The SEO services help you choosing the most competitive keywords for your price per click campaign to give you quality traffic.
Social media marketing 
You know that social media sits like Face book and twitter have become a part and parcel of everybody's like. Lancashire search engine optimization S takes this addiction as a strategy to promote your business online. They display your brand page as an ad on these social media networking sites to gain the attention of the targeted customers. They make sure that your branding page contains right massage to call for an action. 
Diverse advertising strategies 
Apart from all the above, Lancashire search engine optimization Services will always stay ahead of the competition by inventing diverse advertising strategies for your business. Few of the innovative advertising tricks implemented by these SEO companies include E-mail campaign, banner advertising, click through ads and more. These service companies will also help in optimizing the content on the website according to standards to get better page ranking for your website.
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Maximum Advantage From Hosting Free Wordpress Websites


When people think of Wordpress they might think of it as a personal blogging platform. It's difficult for some to see Wordpress as a website, but actually, Wordpress has much more to offer than than just a standard blog platform.
With the arrival of Wordpress, gone are the days of having to learn HTML, and other language codes to build websites. No longer do you need to upload each file you create to your server, or perform a lot of those other mundane tasks that you need to do with a regular website. In short, things are a lot easier now that Wordpress is on the scene.
Setting Up Your Business Online Using Free Wordpress Websites
You can build a free business websites on two different platforms of Wordpress:
1. Hosted on Wordpress.com - If you use the hosting of Wordpress, your blog is already set up as soon as you register. You can immediately start posting your content. It's OK for people, who are just getting their feet wet.
The disadvantage is that you cannot experience some of the rich features that Wordpress has, if it is hosted on the Wordpress server. You can't install plugins that would make your business easier to manage, and would help your website rank higher in the search engines.
2. Hosted by Your Domain on Another Web Host - In this model, you first purchase multiple-domain webhosting, and then you can build free Wordpress websites on your own domains, taking advantage of the full power of Wordpress. This is suitable for almost any business.
10 Benefits of Free Wordpress Sites on Your Own Domain
When you use free Wordpress sites with your own domain, big things start to happen. You will discover that you are in total control of your free business website.
Here are 10 benefits:
1. Easy Installation - Installation is very easy when you have a web hosting service that has auto installers. auto installation can be carried out by programmes like Fantastico. Just a couple of clicks and Wordpress is installed on a server other than Wordpress.com.
2. Syndicate with RSS - When you use free Wordpress websites, you are allowed to syndicate your content. That means that you enable other people to be informed whenever anything has been updated. Anytime you create a new post, your RSS subscriber will receive the update announcement.
3. SEO Friendly - The structure of blogs makes them able to rank high and fast. By using plugins such as All-in-One-SEO on your free Wordpress websites, getting your business website ranked becomes much easier.
4. Plugins for Everything - Speaking of plugins, there are plugins for almost everything for your free business website. Plugins make quick changes on your website, and help make your life much easier.
5. Quick Themes - If you had a regular website designed, it would cost you much money. Plus, every time you wanted to make changes to the look and feel of the site, it would cost you money. Wordpress Themes are designs that can make your website look legit in a few seconds. If you don't like the way your website looks, you just change your theme, and it's changed in seconds.
6. Fast Content Update - It's easy to edit or add posts with free Wordpress websites. This saves you a lot of time, compared to adding new pages on a regular website.
7. Lockdown Your Site - Free business websites using Wordpress are able to password protect their pages by clicking a few buttons. You can also protect your entire website by using various free password protector plugins.
8. Rank Booster - By using the Wordpress Tag System, you help increase traffic to your website. You can also use ping plugins to promote your site every time you make a new post.
9. Communicate with Comments - The comments feature on free Wordpress websites gives you the power to communicate with your subscribers by posting comments. Your subscribers can also add tips and comments if they want.
10. It's Free - Yes, even the Wordpress that you install on a different web hosting account is free.
You should definitely consider building free Wordpress websites for your business on your own 
domain.

David Hurley

photo credit: Eric M Martin via photopin cc

Monday, December 9, 2013

Programming : here you can learn and get a great informations for free

Introduction

Programming is the process of writing instructions for computers to produce software for users. It's the combining of minute details to form a cohesive whole. More than anything, it is a creative and problem-solving activity. The problem solving aspect of programming will become self-evident as we move forward. For now, I'd like to talk about the creative side.
At a high level, it's obvious that creating software requires creativity. You are building something for people to use. It must therefore be clever without being complex. It must be intuitive and elegant. What isn't obvious to most people is that creativity plays an equally important role at the micro level of building software. Every instruction that you type requires consideration. In this respect, I've always likened programming to writing a book or painting a picture. Ultimately you have a finished product, but it's the sentences and the strokes, and how they are combined, which is where the book, painting or program truly comes to life.
I sincerely believe that programming is a beautiful thing. However, I warn you that learning to program isn't trivial. You should be able to learn the basics with relative ease. Unfortunately, going from these basics to being able to write a useful program isn't easy. In fact, it can be quite frustrating. I tell you this so that you know what to expect, not to discourage you. How far you take this journey is up to you, this is but a start.......
PLEASE it's a free site and we can learn programing step by step 
Enjoy 

Here you find a useful site to study programming with small steps

http://teachingkidsprogramming.org

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Types of Information Security Controls


Security is generally defined as the freedom from danger or as the condition of safety. Computer security, specifically, is the protection of data in a system against unauthorized disclosure, modification, or destruction and protection of the computer system itself against unauthorized use, modification, or denial of service. Because certain computer security controls inhibit productivity, security is typically a compromise toward which security practitioners, system users, and system operations and administrative personnel work to achieve a satisfactory balance between security and productivity.
Controls for providing information security can be physical, technical, or administrative. These three categories of controls can be further classified as either preventive or detective. Preventive controls attempt to avoid the occurrence of unwanted events, whereas detective controls attempt to identify unwanted events after they have occurred. Preventive controls inhibit the free use of computing resources and therefore can be applied only to the degree that the users are willing to accept. Effective security awareness programs can help increase users’ level of tolerance for preventive controls by helping them understand how such controls enable them to trust their computing systems. Common detective controls include audit trails, intrusion detection methods, and checksums.
Three other types of controls supplement preventive and detective controls. They are usually described as deterrent, corrective, and recovery. Deterrent controls are intended to discourage individuals from intentionally violating information security policies or procedures. These usually take the form of constraints that make it difficult or undesirable to perform unauthorized activities or threats of consequences that influence a potential intruder to not violate security (e.g., threats ranging from embarrassment to severe punishment).
Corrective controls either remedy the circumstances that allowed the unauthorized activity or return conditions to what they were before the violation. Execution of corrective controls could result in changes to existing physical, technical, and administrative controls. Recovery controls restore lost computing resources or capabilities and help the organization recover monetary losses caused by a security violation.
Deterrent, corrective, and recovery controls are considered to be special cases within the major categories of physical, technical, and administrative controls; they do not clearly belong in either preventive or detective categories. For example, it could be argued that deterrence is a form of prevention because it can cause an intruder to turn away; however, deterrence also involves detecting violations, which may be what the intruder fears most. Corrective controls, on the other hand, are not preventive or detective, but they are clearly linked with technical controls when antiviral software eradicates a virus or with administrative controls when backup procedures enable restoring a damaged data base. Finally, recovery controls are neither preventive nor detective but are included in administrative controls as disaster recovery or contingency plans.
Because of these overlaps with physical, technical, and administrative controls, the deterrent, corrective, and recovery controls are not discussed further in this chapter. Instead, the preventive and detective controls within the three major categories are examined.
PHYSICAL CONTROLS
Physical security is the use of locks, security guards, badges, alarms, and similar measures to control access to computers, related equipment (including utilities), and the processing facility itself. In addition, measures are required for protecting computers, related equipment, and their contents from espionage, theft, and destruction or damage by accident, fire, or natural disaster (e.g., floods and earthquakes).

Harold F. Tipton
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what is the cache

  •  The cache

    In the previous chapter, I described two aspects of the ongoing development of new CPU’s – increased clock frequencies and the increasing number of transistors being used. Now it is time to look at a very different yet related technology – the processor’s connection to the RAM, and the use of the L1 and L2 caches.

    Speed conflict

    The CPU works internally at very high clock frequencies (like 3200 MHz), and no RAM can keep up with these.
    The most common RAM speeds are between 266 and 533 MHz. And these are just a fraction of the CPU’s working speed. So there is a great chasm between the machine (the CPU) which slaves away at perhaps 3200 MHz, and the “conveyor belt”, which might only work at 333 MHz, and which has to ship the data to and from the RAM. These two subsystems are simply poorly matched to each other.
    If nothing could be done about this problem, there would be no reason to develop faster CPU’s. If the CPU had to wait for a bus, which worked at one sixth of its speed, the CPU would be idle five sixths of the time. And that would be pure waste.
    The solution is to insert small, intermediate stores of high-speed RAM. These buffers (cache RAM) provide a much more efficient transition between the fast CPU and the slow RAM. Cache RAM operates at higher clock frequencies than normal RAM. Data can therefore be read more quickly from the cache.

    Data is constantly being moved

    The cache delivers its data to the CPU registers. These are tiny storage units which are placed right inside the processor core, and they are the absolute fastest RAM there is. The size and number of the registers is designed very specifically for each type of CPU.
    Fig.  68. Cache RAM is much faster than normal RAM.
    The CPU can move data in different sized packets, such as bytes (8 bits), words (16 bits), dwords (32 bits) or blocks(larger groups of bits), and this often involves the registers. The different data packets are constantly moving back and forth:
  • from the CPU registers to the Level 1 cache.
  • from the L1 cache to the registers.
  • from one register to another
  • from L1 cache to L2 cache, and so on…
    The cache stores are a central bridge between the RAM and the registers which exchange data with the processor’s execution units.
    The optimal situation is if the CPU is able to constantly work and fully utilize all clock ticks. This would mean that the registers would have to always be able to fetch the data which the execution units require. But this it not the reality, as the CPU typically only utilizes 35% of its clock ticks. However, without a cache, this utilization would be even lower.

    Bottlenecks

    CPU caches are a remedy against a very specific set of “bottleneck” problems. There are lots of “bottlenecks” in the PC – transitions between fast and slower systems, where the fast device has to wait before it can deliver or receive its data. These bottle necks can have a very detrimental effect on the PC’s total performance, so they must be minimised.
    Fig.  69. A cache increases the CPU’s capacity to fetch the right data from RAM.
    The absolute worst bottleneck exists between the CPU and RAM. It is here that we have the heaviest data traffic, and it is in this area that PC manufacturers are expending a lot of energy on new development. Every new generation of CPU brings improvements relating to the front side bus.
    The CPU’s cache is “intelligent”, so that it can reduce the data traffic on the front side bus. The cache controller constantly monitors the CPU’s work, and always tries to read in precisely the data the CPU needs. When it is successful, this is called a cache hit. When the cache does not contain the desired data, this is called a cache miss.

    Two levels of cache

    The idea behind cache is that it should function as a “near store” of fast RAM. A store which the CPU can always be supplied from.
    Fig.  70. The cache system tries to ensure that relevant data is constantly being fetched from RAM, so that the CPU (ideally) never has to wait for data.

    L1 cache

    Level 1 cache is built into the actual processor core. It is a piece of RAM, typically 8, 16, 20, 32, 64 or 128 Kbytes, which operates at the same clock frequency as the rest of the CPU. Thus you could say the L1 cache is part of the processor.
    L1 cache is normally divided into two sections, one for data and one for instructions. For example, an Athlon processor may have a 32 KB data cache and a 32 KB instruction cache. If the cache is common for both data and instructions, it is called a unified cache.

    source

  • Sunday, December 8, 2013

    Security Threat



    Malware comes in many different forms and some of the more common are viruses are those that infect systems when they are downloaded and opened by the user. Combating any malware can be a never ending battle. It seems as if there is always some new security threat you need to be aware of. One of the latest is CryptoLocker - a new form of ransomware.
    Knowledge is power so finding out more about CryptoLocker is recommended, as well as how you can take steps to protect your systems.
    What is CryptoLocker?
    Ransomware is a virus that locks important files or systems and requests that users pay a ransom to unlock them. This is not a new form of malware, but there has been a recent resurgence and CryptoLocker is leading the way.
    This particularly nasty piece of malware infects user systems and locks files, threatening to delete them unless the hacker is paid. It is being spread four different ways:
    As an email sent to company addresses pretending to be from customer support from FedEx, UPS, DHL, etc. The virus is attached to the email, usually labeled as a tracking number.
    In PDF documents that are attached to emails.
    Via hacked websites that can exploit computer vulnerabilities to install the infection.
    Through trojans that pretend to be programs you need to download in order to watch videos online.
    CryptoLocker installs itself to the Documents and Settings folder on your system and then proceeds to search for specific file types like Microsoft Word Docs or Adobe PDFs. It applies an asymmetric encryption which requires both a public and private key to unlock. The public key is stored in the virus itself and is used to encrypt the files. The private key is hosted on the hacker’s server.
    What happens if I get infected?
    If your system is infected your files will be encrypted and a pop-up message displayed informing you that your personal files have been encrypted and that in order to get the key to unlock them (the private key) you need to pay up to USD$300, or a similar amount in another currency. This amount seems to change and has increased, with older versions asking for USD$100.
    You will also see a timer counting down from 100 hours. If this reaches zero, your encrypted data will be deleted with a very slim chance of the files being recoverable. The preferred method of payment is in BitCoins - a digital currency. The pop-up window has instructions on how to submit the payment - usually through an online payment method like Green Dot - MoneyPak.
    The good news is, once you submit the payment, you will receive a key you can enter to unlock your files. The hackers have said that they won’t re-infect systems, and network security companies have confirmed that so far, this has been the case.
    While many up-to-date virus and security scanners will pick up CryptoLocker, most won’t be able to recover or decrypt files even if the malware itself is deleted. If you see the pop-up window, it’s probably too late.
    How do I prevent CryptoLocker from infecting my systems?
    This is a serious piece of malware that should not be taken lightly. If you are worried about your systems being infected, here are five things you can do to prevent that from happening:
    Be proactive - It is a good idea to educate yourself and your staff about this piece of malware and even implement and reinforce a no installing your own software rule. Also, having a backup and disaster recovery plan in place and functioning will go a long way in limiting the damage this program can do.
    Check your emails closely - Closely look at every email that comes into your inbox. Pay attention to who sent it, the body text and even the subject line. If you see a slight spelling mistake in the name or even in the address e.g.,customersupport@fedx.com, you should be careful or maybe just immediately delete the email.
    Beware of attachments - Always look at your attachments. If you get an email with an attachment from any sender you don’t personally know don’t open it. If you get an attachment from people you do know, but it isn’t something they would normally send, don’t open it. For all other attachments, try confirming that the file
    attached is in fact legitimate by asking the sender.
    Backup your data - Be sure to always backup your data on a regular basis. If you backup files on a daily or even weekly basis and are infected, you can easily wipe your hard drives and start again without losing much in the way of data.
    Know what to do if infected - If you are infected the first thing you should do is disconnect from the network to limit the chance of the virus spreading to other systems. If you have backed up your system and data, you can probably revert your system. If not, your best plan of attack would be to contact us to see if we can help, as we may be able to get around the encryption or even delete it.
    photo credit: IntelFreePress via photopin cc

    XP Protection 2014 Virus



    XP Protection 2014 Virus is a crafty browser hijacker to hook internet users computers with any permission and then keeps popping up when visit any website. Computers may get the virus when go to an unsafe website accidentally and get a pop up for you to click and download something. Once installed in a target computer, the XP Protection 2014 malware will redirect your website and you search engines. The annoying browser hijacker is supposed to target many browsers, Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome and so on. When your computer get infected by the virus, it will freak you out by mislead your homepage to XP Protection 2014 adware pops up every time.
    Once found its location in your infected computer, this Virus will modify the settings of your default search engine secretly and reset the DSN setting without your consent. The browser hijacker will display plenty of commercial advertisements and other pop-ups when you surf the internet and open a websites each time. Your homepage will be disabled by the disturbance of this Virus So you are unable to go on line normally and smoothly. So you are unable to go on line normally and smoothly. What's more, it will kill the internet users for the slow performance of the system.this Virus will spoil your system gradually without your knowledge if without a complete removal.
    this Virus will sneak in your computer from the installation of freeware, adware, malware, spam and junk emails. The cunning virus will hide itself in your system after installed with a success and can steal your personal information to cyber criminals and bring a mess up in your computer without your consciousness and agreement. Therefore, when your computer gets the infection of the XP Protection 2014 Virus, please get rid of it as soon as possible.
    How Can This XP Protection 2014 Infect the Computer?
    Once sneaking into a fragile computer with success, this Virus is going to modify the default settings of the infected browser and then take over it completely. The XP Protection 2014 malware will mislead Internet users’ websites to an unwanted and irrelevant website. Apart from giving a redirection and a bunch of pop-ups on the screen, the virus is designed to install plenty of other threats, such as some unwanted programs and other viruses, on the infected computer without any consciousness or permission. Internet users have no ability to handicap the process of the uninvited programs and then they will detect the infected system showing a slow performance and coming across a crash at last. Victims should get rid of XP Protection 2014 popup as soon as possible or the browser hijacker will cause more damage.
    Is XP Protection 2014 Bad For Your Computer?
    XP Protection 2014 Virus has been classified as annoying browser hijacker is sponsored by cyber criminals to intrude victims’ browser. Once installed on a vulnerable computer, this Virus popup will redirect victims’ homepage or search results without any confirmation when they launch the infected a browsers. Instead of moving into a web as it should do, the browser will be enforced to move into XP Protection 2014 AD and display numerous commercial ad pop-ups or some so-called free games on the screen. The Internet users are unable to ignore or close the additional pop-ups because the pop-ups will launch themselves automatically and then lead an online traffic, which will interrupt victims’ online sessions. So it is very bad.
    In a word, the XP Protection 2014 Virus is a tricky browser hijacker which is created by cyber criminals to intrude victims’ computers and then do some damage with the system of the infected computers. The settings of the default browser will be tampered and then it will redirect your homepage to amazon.com whenever you use a search engine to visit a website. The plenty of unwanted pop-ups will be beyond of your tolerance of limits and put an obstruction for you to go online. What’s worse, the victims will get the headache of the leak out of their confidential information for cyber criminals, which is a nightmare for internet users. If your computer gets the bogus browser hijacker, the more adware or malware will be appended to your computer and bring more damnity on your computer. Consequently, please get a 
    complete removal at no delay.


    photo credit: bolg via photopin cc

    Monday, December 2, 2013

    How To Compare Web Hosting Providers


    If you need to create a site then chances are you could need the services of a hosting business to ensure that your site can feel created are living over the internet. Indeed there are so many companies available it can feel really difficult to render a preference.
    Web hosting has grown to become a very big and worthwhile business and numerous companies are really mushrooming every single some other day with the sole objective of supplying web site hosting professional services. Without having better knowledge to carry out the entire factor of selecting a host you can easily end up with an extremely bad company. Right here are some of the tips you want when comparing our services:
    The Price
    This might be one such important aspect to appear at when considering web hosting services. You will want to evaluate different hosting price tag plans for unique services. Though it is important which you do not merely evaluate the cost solely, but you additionally think about various other factors. Always attempt to think about precisely what you will need from all the business very than just bouncing upon one with the price point.
    Do They Really Cater For Growth?
    Not every single internet hosting company is suitable for everyone. There are a few which have a good sharing provider whilst the couple do not have any sort of account for fasts growing companies. Because such, should you decide select this type of web hosting but an individual are a growing company you could have a significant difficulty when considering updating your internet provider. It is important to look into the niche of a particular business when which makes the comparison.
    Technical aspects
    As soon as you are looking at different web hosting provider providers with the sole purpose of comparing them, it is important that you evaluate the technical aspects. For example, you ought to consider the main reason which you need the web hosting provider. Do you ought to host a blogging internet site, a wealthy content website, e-commerce website or perhaps a movie site? This is going to make you have to consider the memory a specific business offers too as the storage as well as other this kind of aspects.
    Technical assistance
    This excellent is also the important account to make whenever comparing a hosting provider. You ought to physical appearance at just how responsive all of the companies are. Exactly how long does it take for the company to {respond problems like the downtime of the site, can you discover a person on the internet if you feature a problem. A company that has a range of technical help platforms is just good to go for. This system must include a toll-free call line, e-mail, and also alive chat.
    Accessible features
    Also as to make a comprehensive comparison stuck between companies you will likely require to consider the particular features that one offers. Exactly what "icing with the cake" do you receive from a business which does not appear from the others? Our include features like regular backups, several data centers, and additionally complimentary private domains. In many cases the hosting services will offer an individual with more than simply the webserver.
    Owner interfaces
    It is even important to consider the user interfaces that each web site hosting business offers. You will want to be keen on this because some offers may have good looking interfaces that are extremely challenging to use.
    As such our are really just several of the numerous aspects which you have to think about when appearing at just web hosting providers.


    photo credit: Tim Dorr via photopin cc